Its 27 years have passed since 20 January 1990, the date of history of heroism in struggle for independence of Azerbaijan. Every year the tragedy of 20th January is memorize in Azerbaijan as the National Mourning day, which reflects struggle of the Azerbaijani people for its freedom and readiness to give their life towards independence.
Unfair policy led by the leadership of the Soviet Union in respect to other nations living in the country, turning stagnation in economy to crisis, misconduct by the government in improvement of social situation of people and other negative steps resulted with justified discontent of people and paved the way for the realization of their dream of independence. In addition, the territorial claims of Armenia against Azerbaijan and rise of illegal activity in Nagorno-Karabakh is aggravated already complicated social and political situation to worst.
Thus, on the one side the revival of the national-freedom movement of the Azerbaijani people and on other side deterioration of socio-political situation in the country gave a pretext for the leadership of the Soviet Union take the rough measures against Azerbaijan.
At midnight of 19th to 20th January, Soviet troops invaded Baku and opened fire with machine guns to civil people protesting in the streets. That night 121 people in various districts of Baku were killed by Soviet soldiers. In subsequent days, including 147 people were killed and more than 700 injured and wounded, out of which 25 were women and 20 children.
The first objectively political evaluation to bloody events of January was given by the National Leader Heydar Aliyev. The next day after the tragedy he put in danger his own and the life of the family members, came to the Permanent Representation of Azerbaijan to Moscow, strongly condemned the bloody action perpetrated in Azerbaijan by the Communist regime, protested against killing of innocent people, demanded the punishment of those responsible for the committed crime and shared the sorrow of the people of Azerbaijan.
In order to perpetuate the memory of the martyrs of January 20, on the initiative of National Leader Heydar Aliyev the "Eternal Flame" Monument Complex was erected in the Alley of Martyrs which is dedicated to those who died in fighting for the freedom. Honorary title of the "Martyr of 20 January" was awarded by the Decree of the President of Azerbaijan dated January 17, 2000 to the victims of that tragedy.
Successful follower of political direction of the National Leader, the President Ilham Aliyev also keeps under his attention the concerns of families and the injured ones of the January 20 martyr. The decree of the head of state for increasing of grants and improvement of housing condition of the people injured in January 20 events and the families of martyrs is highly evaluated by the public.
Every year the Azerbaijani people memorize the tragedy of 20th January which marked in their memory undeletable spot, pay tribute to their hero and will never forget this horror.