130th birth anniversary of Mahammad Amin Rasulzade



In January 2014, the 130th birth anniversary of Mahammad Amin Rasulzade, one of the founders of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) (1918-1920) and chair of the Azerbaijan National Council is widely celebrated.

 Being a prominent politician and public figure Mahammad Amin Rasulzade had immensely contributed to realization of freedom ideals of the Azerbaijani nation, to the revival of the national state building based on the historical statehood traditions of Azerbaijan and popularization of national independence ideologies. His expression "The flag once raised will never fall!" has become the motto of the independence movement in Azerbaijan in the 20th century.

 ADR has its own exceptional place and role in the centuries-old statehood history of Azerbaijan. And M.A.Rasulzade has had particular services in the history of ADR. In the fall of 1917 M.A.Rasulzade had been elected as a member from Azerbaijan and Turkustan to the parliament of Tsar Russian Empire. As a result of interfractional litigations on May 26, 1918 the Transcaucasia Sejm was dismissed and the next day Azerbaijan National Council was established comprising of the members of various parties of the Muslim fraction of the Sejm. M.A.Rasulzade had been elected the Chair of the National Council with majority of votes.

 On May 28, 1918 foreign radio stations and newspapers distributed information about the declaration of independence of Azerbaijan to the world. Having founded and declared Azerbaijan Democratic Republic at the beginning of the 20th century,  Azerbaijani public figures, such as Alimardan bey Topchubashov, Fatali khan Khoyski, Nasib bey Yusifbeyli,  Khalil bey Khasmammadov, headed by Mahammad Amin Rasulzade became the authors of one of the glorious dates in the modern statehood history of their country. On May 28, 1918 the meeting of the Azerbaijan National Council was held in Tbilisi and following long discussions the Declaration of Independence of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was adopted. Fatali khan Khoyski established the first Cabinet of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. Thus, Azerbaijani people established the first ever republic not only among the Turkic peoples, but also in the whole Muslim orient.   

 Although for its very short period - only 23 months of existence. during the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic significant measures touching upon many spheres of the country were conducted, the first ever democratic parliament in the Turkic Muslim world was established, people's democratic rights and freedoms were acknowledged, for the first time in the Orient, Azerbaijani women were granted the suffrage. Upon the initiative and tireless efforts of M.A. Rasulzade  Baku State University was established in 1919, where he himself lectured on the History of Ottoman Literature.  

   After the April 27, 1920 occupation of Baku, the capital city of ADR by the Eleventh Red Army, M.A.Rasulzade was arrested and taken to Moscow. Later he went to Leningrad, then to Finland and finally moved to Turkey. This prominent Azerbaijani politician and public figure remained loyal to his profession, objectives and ideology till the end of his life and continued his literary, political-publicist activities in Turkey, Germany and other European countries.

 At the beginning of the XX century to escape tsar regime's prosecutions, M.A.Rasulzade had lived in Iran where he was editor-in-chief of "Irane nou" and "Ahad" newspapers. His novel "A khan" described his life in Tabriz, his books "Tangidi-firgeyi-etidaliyyun" and "Seadeti-besher" had been published in Tehran and Ardabil. His works "Lights in the darkness", "Sayavush of our century", "Past, establishment and present of the Azerbaijan Republic", "Ideology of independence and youth" are of particular interest in M.A.Rasuzlade's literary-publicist works.  

 Mahammad Amin Rasulzade passed away on March 6, 1955 at the clinic of the medical chair of Ankara University after repeating 3 times "Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan, Azerbaiijan!". He was buried at the Asri Cemetery of Ankara.

 The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev had signed a decree dated December 29, 1993 "On celebrating the 110th birth anniversary of M. A. Rasulzade, the prominent public-political figure of Azerbaijan".

  The President of the Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev had signed a decree dated November 22, 2013 "On celebrating the 130th birth anniversary of Mahammad Amin Rasulzade".

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